Design Contents |

Preliminary Matters

Design Methodology

..brain storming

..evaluation matrix

..QFD

Statistical Considerations

..variability in materials

..variability in dimensions

..variability in loading

..preferred sizes

Tolerances

Design Factor

Introduction to Failure

Failure Theories

Application of von Mises

..criterion in 2 D

Stress Concentration

..and notch sensitivity

Failure Under Combined Loading

..combined bending and torsion

Failure Under Cyclic Loading

..fatigue

..fracture mechanics

Instability - Buckling

Concentrically Loaded Strut

..slender columns

..Euler formula

..effective length

..short and intermediate columns

Eccentrically Loaded Strut

.. theory

Shock Loading

..deflection

..stress

STRESS CONCENTRATION |

**1. Introduction**

Basic stress analysis calculations assume that the components are smooth, have a uniform section and no irregularities.

In practice virtually all engineering components have to have changes in section and / or shape. Common examples are shoulders on shafts, oil holes, key ways and screw threads. Any discontinuity changes the stress distribution in the vicinity of the discontinuity, so that the basic stress analysis equations no longer apply. Such 'discontinuities' or 'stress raisers' cause local increase of stress referred to as 'stress concentration'.

The 'theoretical' or 'geometric' stress concentration factor K_{t} or K_{ts} is used to
relate the actual maximum stress at the discontinuity to the nominal stress.

K_{t} = max direct stress / nominal direct stress and K_{ts} = max shear stress / nominal shear stress.

In published information relating to stress concentration values the nominal stress may be defined on either the original 'gross cross section' or on the 'reduced net cross section' and care needs to be taken that the correct nominal stress is used.

The subscript 't' indicates that the stress concentration value is a theoretical calculation based only on the geometry of the component and discontinuity.

**2. Notch Sensitivity**

Some materials are not as sensitive to notches as implied by the theoretical stress concentration factor. For these materials a
reduced value of K_{t} is used: K_{f}. In these materials the maximum stress is:

max. stress = K_{f} x nominal stress

The notch sensitivity, q, is defined as: q = (K_{f} - 1) / (K_{t} - 1) where q is between 0 and 1.

This equation shows that if q = 0, then K_{f} = 1 as the material has no sensitivity to notches. If q = 1, then
K_{f} = K_{t} and the material is fully notch sensitive.

When designing, a frequent procedure is to first find K_{t} from the geometry of the component, then specify the
material and look up the notch sensitivity, q, for the notch radius from a chart. Then by rearranging the above equation, determine K_{f}.

K_{f} = 1 + q(K_{t} - 1).

Curves for q values are normally plotted up to notch radii of 4mm. For larger notch radii, the q value at 4 mm can be used.

Most cast irons have a very low q value. This is because their microstructures contain many notches, so additional machined ones make little difference. A value of q = 0.2 will be on the safe side for all grades of cast iron.

**3. When to Use Stress Concentration Values**

To apply stress concentration calculations, the part and notch geometry must be known. However where a part is known to contain cracks, the
geometry of these may not be known and in any case as the notch radius tends to zero, as it does in a crack, then the stress concentration value tends to infinity and
the stress concentration is no longer a helpful design tool. In these cases 'Fracture Mechanics' techniques are used.

Where the geometry is known, then for brittle materials, stress concentration values should be used.

In the case of ductile materials that are subject only to one load cycle during their lifetime (fairly unusual in Mechanical Engineering) it is not necessary to use stress concentration factors as local plastic flow and work hardening will prevent failure provided the average stress is below the yield stress.

**NB** Not all ductile materials are ductile under all conditions, many become brittle under some circumstances. The most common cause of brittle behavior in
materials normally considered to be ductile is being exposed to low temperatures.

For ductile materials subjected to cyclic loading the stress concentration factor has to be included in the factors that reduce the fatigue strength of a component.

The applets below calculate the theoretical or geometric stress concentration factors,

David Grieve, Revised: 28th January 2010; 3 March 2003; Original: 24th August 2000.

**Contact the Author:**

Please contact me for comments and / or corrections or to purchase the book, at: davejgrieve@aol.com